sacred architecture

Sacred Architecture

An invasive and subversive research based on Architecture, but also on Geometry, Orientation and the Layout of the Temples and Sacraments of Ancient Hellenism. The role of the Priests, the Gates of the Dead and the Gods, the axis of the Mysteries and Sacred Way, Alexander the Great, the Great Constantine … An impressive amount of information and groundbreaking links that shed light on contemporary political and religious reality.

The book Sacred Architecture explains the relationship between Religion and Construction through religious, historical and mythological events. Here Philosophy, Science, Art and the Letters of ancient Greeks played a key role …




Translation (EN)


Original Title

George Baltoyannis | Architect

Angelo Baltoyannis | MSc Architect

Chris Loutroutzis

Mythical Routes – Athens 2017

Ιερή Αρχιτεκτονική


AS A CHRISTIAN, RESEARCHING A DEAD RELIGION, like the Olympian Pantheon, it feels like something foreign which doesn’t affect you emotionally. However, when you are reading mythology, you start to wonder how thousands of years ago people could engage in deeper reasoning than you and thus you are led to places where face riddles impossible to imagine. Reading mythology you realize that you stand in front of a great religion, which you quickly become familiar with and you start to become enchanted by the wealth of Knowledge. Things that held no meaning for you come to life in front of your eyes, and the rocks, the mountains or rivers acquire speech and grace, making your fantasy travel far away.
You then start to realize that your ancestors did not live in a wild environment, but in an enchanting world, a paradise; your differences with them are minor and superficial. Then, you follow them in time, which slowly approaches you and comes to your own religion which you believe in and love.
However, all of a sudden fear is born and you want to explore your own space out of curiosity. You know that all the angels are watching you strictly from above, and you waver.
You know that someday you will die and you don’t want to depart wandering if there is or what is life after death. And so you start to explore your own religion, going over every subject, opening books on the table, searching endlessly, and returning to the start, worrying that you might have reasoned incorrectly.
You are afraid that you will be disappointed, but you have confidence, knowing that whatever happens in the end, you will face it with courage. And as the ball of yarn unwinds, faces that act through history appear before you. You join their pieces like a mosaic in your thoughts, trying to figure out why your ancestor did this particular action or some other. You now compose their image, while struggling to know them in your time. It is they who once determined your future with a command, before you even existed on Earth.
These are your thoughts as a man. If, however, you are also an architect, when you are tasked with constructing the temple of God, among your many other thoughts you will also have to create with your construction the relationship between God and the faithful.
Then you start to search for God through the believer and come into contact with the priest, who is the connective link between the faithful and God. You assume sometimes the priest’s position and sometimes the believer’s, to express with shapes the word, emotions or historical tradition. With this way you discover the symbols which, as soon as they are seen by the believer, he will recognize as divine and make them his own.
You then proceed from the shape to volume and from volume to architecture, creating internal vacuums, in order for the believer to enter the temple and be embraced by God. The believer now feels the safety and Love of God.
In a similar way you proceed to Archeology , with the difference that you “reincarnate” to an architect of another era and through historical reasoning you try to capture the spirit of your fellow architect.
If along the way you find out that the path you are following does not tie in with your quest, then you try to look for the cause; another world now unfolds before you, the one that preexisted, and thus you come into contact with the previous worship, which takes you away, to the roots of the human race.

The researcher,

George Baltoyannis


Table of Contents

Part 1 – The Pre-Christian Infrastructure

  1. Introduction
  2. Change Of Thought
    Axial Religious System
  3. Geographical Conditions
  4. Monotheism – Polytheism
    Greek Mythology – Old Testament
  5. Alexander the Great- Alexandria – Ptolemies – Palestine
    Alexandrian Literature – Science
  6. Orphics – Pythagoreans – Philosophical Schools
    Logic Of Delphi
  7. Old Testament – Thoughts

Part 2 – The Reform of Augustus

  1. Religious Model
  2. Christian Model
    Reform of Augustus
    Roman Politics
    Religious Situation in Palestine
  3. Crypto-Christians – Universality
    Political Activities of the Apostle Paul
  4. Conclusions

Part 3 – The Religious Extensions of the Ancient World

  1. Coincidences and Opinions
    Greek Mythology – New Testament and Alexander the Great
    Jesus of Nazareth – Galiliee (Nazareth)
    Nero : History’s Victim
    Christian Political Course
    Global Pre- Christian Logic
    1. China
    2. Mound – Pyramid
    3. Logic of the Pyramids
    4. Astrology
    5. Human processes
    6.Cosmic Egg
    7. America
    8. Grecoroman level of Relations
    9. Overseas Contacts
    10. Homer’s World
    11. Religious Periods
    Nazarenes – Depiction of God – Man
  2. Christian Religious Base
  3. Architect God
    Basilica (Analysis)
    Greek Architectural styles
    Christian Logic
    Holy Sepulchre
    Greek Construction Teams
    Domed Basilica
    Religious Infrastructure
    Imperial Interventions
    Transfer of Holy Sites
    Christian Architecture
    Metaphysical Processes in Alexandria
    The Space – Time Dimension of Alexander the Great – Trade
    Imperial politics and Christianity
    Furies – Fanaticism – Contract – Testament
    Buddhism – Islam
    Geographical Axes
    Alexandrian Orphic Model
    Metaphysical Experiments
    Religious Interest of the Emperors
  4. Mnemonic Summary
  5. Major Worship Gods before the Fathers
    Apollo (model)
    Is Alexander the Great Alive?
    Jesus – Alexander the Great
    Alexander’s Tent
  6. Fathers of the Church

Part 4 – The Natural Phenomena – Sacred Way

  1. Enceladus -Hephaestus- Apollo
  2. Creating the Sacred Way
  3. Achaeans
  4. Function and Purpose of the Clergy
  5. Logic of the Sacred Way
  6. The Hard Clerical Core
  7. Secret Societies – New World Order

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Celestial and Chthonic

Rectilinear and Curvilinear architecture

Let us see the logic through which the clergy separated the rectilinear from the curvilinear shapes, to create the architectural systems we mention in the 1st part of the book “Holy Sacramental Journey to Greece” (by author G. Baltoyannis); a logic which had to do with the psychology of the individual. Even to this day we follow the same logic and express ourselves with designs and volumes in the same way. Today however it is difficult to say if our own perception of space is a spontaneous expression or if it comes from the processing of the past.
Nowadays when an artist wants to express “joy” or “sorrow”, he will use the same logic on the canvas, otherwise he will not be understood. Therefore through education we learn to distinguish the things, in order to understand the artist. Of course art nowadays is not bound by rules, based on which the art critic gave his opinion on the work of the artist and which started to be created during the Renaissance. These rules came from the interpretation of the works of art of antiquity. Therefore our opinion is very deeply rooted. Let us now observe the logic of the Ancients.
There was a clear distinction between a straight line and a curved part. When someone wants to express a powerful emotion, like passion, love or anger and has to choose between a straight line and a curved part, he will not choose the rectilinear but the curvilinear; on the contrary, if he wants to express thought, justice, conviction, he will use the rectilinear part.
The reason he would choose the curvilinear would not be because that was forced upon him, ergo it would have been a matter of habit, but because man lives and belongs to the natural environment, where everything is based on curvilinear shapes; he instinctively and spontaneously understands those, without being able to see the process within him, it is namely cthonic.

Necromanteion of Acheron is one of the first examples of Curvilinear architecture

The straight line occurred from cerebral activity, when man used tools and created structures, which are easier to solve in time. The outcome of said process is also visible outside of man, in the light of day, it is namely celestial.
Therefore, the rectilinear surface is a result of thought and is identified with reason, while the curvilinear always existed in the nature of man. The more a person evolves, the more the straight line dominates in his structures, because, it not only spares him time, it is also more economic.

Parthenon is the pinnacle of Rectilinear architecture

When then, in a given time, man, reaching some level of intellectual maturity, thinks of structurally expressing his religious needs, he chooses the curve for his passions and the straight line for his thoughts. But because man thought of his own origin, he came to the conclusion that he himself was also the creation of some rational thought, the same way he thinks and creates. Therefore he places this God, his Creator, based on the rectilinear logic, outside of man and above him, to watch and protect him. That is why the ancients sacrificed a white lamb, on a high altar, for the celestial gods.
On the contrary, as far as his passions are concerned, which make him clash with his fellow man, there is also some god responsible. And because it all starts within man, therefore the god of passion lies within man and bellow the earth, since he is not seen. They sacrificed then, to the chthonic gods, digging in the earth, the black lamb.

The STRAIGHT represents: above, thought, civilization, (and by a similar logic as the East) represents: light, truth, power.

The CURVE represents: bellow, the chthonic, the devious, the primitive, (and consequently) North which represents: darkness, lies, fear.