City of Light

ROUTE INFORMATION – T.B.D. : Spring 2019

Central Greece

Historic Landmarks

  • Dion
  • Delphi
  • Brauron
  • Delos

4/5 Culture Shock

Total Length 1050 km

7 Riding Days

Intermediate Skills Level

45% Offroad

Hotels and (1) Camping

National Forest of TBD

Middle May – Middle October

FAQ

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Lodging

Rent A Ride

Service

Brochure (coming soon)

Dion

Religious Center of Macedonia

Religious Center of Macedonia

Wandering over Pineios, the brother river of Acheloous, we beheld Larissa, a prehistoric town, the founder of which, according to some myth, was Larissus, the son of Pelasgus. Its first king was Aleuas, the ancestor of the Aleuadae. In the Persian Wars they followed Xerxes, but in the Peloponnesian Wars they sided with the Athenians.
Alexander had with him 1.500 Thessalian horsemen, whose reputation as battle worthy was well established and rivaled the Macedonian cavalry; their leader was Calas, son of Harpalus.
Pelasgus from Peloponnese conquered Thessaly, which was at the time called Haemonia, together with his brothers Achaeus and Phthius, driving away its savage inhabitants. Thus Achaia, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotis were formed. This entire region of Thessaly, was in prehistoric times a lake, around which the Centaurs lived.

After a short while, I would be flying over the land of the Achaeans, which was formerly called Phthia and was the land of Achilles. His father Peleus was king in the city of Phthia of Thessaly and was descended from the lineage of Zeus, while his mother was the goddess Thetis, daughter of Oceanus. Thetis, out of respect for Hera who had raised her, had denied the advances of Zeus. So the god was pressuring her to marry Peleus. Thetis, in her attempt to escape, consecutively transformed into fire, water, wind, a tree, a bird, a tiger, a lion, a snake and finally into a squid, but Peleus following the advise of the Centaur Chiron, managed to make her his wife.
Achilles, this young lad of the Achaeans, fell dead, struck by the arrow of Paris of Troy, with the help of the god Apollo who guided the arrow to his vulnerable spot, his heel. Alexander had offered sacrifices at the tomb of the hero and took with him the shield of Achilles, who was his ancestor from his mother’s side Olympiad, before he embarked on his great campaign.

We passed swiftly over mount Orthys and after a while we could see the town of Lamia, named after Lamos, the son of Heracles and Omphale. It was the land of the malians, in the Malian gulf, where Ceyx the son of Eosphorus a friend and relative of Heracles was king, who also helped the hero drive away the Dryopes, who resided in mount Oeta and mount Parnassus, pillaging the neighbouring areas.

On the left we could see the land of the Locres, where the battle of Thermopylae took place in 490 B.C., in a narrow passage between the mountain and the sea near Anthele, where the representatives of the 12 tribes of the Delphic Amphictyony convened in the spring (here).
The Dryopes, whose name derives from the word “Drys” (Δρύς=Oak in Greek), were, as it seems, the first inhabitants of the Greek Peninsula. Dryops, their hero, was the son of the river god Spercheus, brother of Achelous and Peneus, who directed his waters into the Malian gulf. Spercheus was also the father of the Nymphs of mount Orthys. The father of Achilles, dedicated his son’s hair to this river, so that his son would return safe from Troy. The mother of Dryops, was the daughter of Danaus, Polydora. The land of the Dryopes was taken over by the Dorians and the Heracleidae, and thus it was renamed to Doris, after their hero Dorus, the son of Hellen, brother of Aeolus and grandson of Deucalion and Pyrrha.
Shortly we would be arriving in Parnassus. We would stop at Delphi, as guests of Dionysus, and then head to Delos, following the instructions of the Olympian Zeus.

Mythological Park

From Mythology to History

From Mythology to History

Roaming around at Delphi we observed this strange world of the Greeks, where one tribe dedicated votive offerings (oblation) for its victory against the other, without any problem; an offering of the Arcadians for the victory and plunder of Lacedaemon with Epaminondas in 369 B.C.; an oblation of the Lacedaemonians for their victory at Aegospotamoi in 404 B.C. and the destruction of the Athenian fleet; a bronze horse of the inhabitants of Argos for their successful invasion of Lacedaemon in 414 B.C.; opposite the Athenian Treasury for the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C., the treasury of Syracuse for their victory over the Athenians in 413 B.C.
One can go mad roaming the votive offerings of Delphi, because through them, each tribe saw its victory, but also its failure. Joy and sorrow at the same time. So I wandered if there is another people in modern day, or if there will ever be one in the future, which will accept its failures next to its successes, raising statues in both cases. The point is that this way one becomes wise through experience, so no tribe destroyed the oblations of the other tribes.

Delphi

Administrative and Religious Center of Greece

Administrative and Religious Center of Greece

We would now continue our journey to Delos. We passed again from mount Helicon and entered Boeotia. The primeval and antediluvian land, where the Ectenes of Ogygia (Boeotia). Ogyges was a native king, the son of Poseidon and Alistra; the deluge which covered Boeotia happened during his reign. On the left, in a distance of a few kilometers from our route, I was amazed to see towns like Mideia (Livadeia), with the terrible oracle of Trophonios which was consulted even by Croesus, with the fountains of Oblivion and Remembrance, just like the Necromanteion. The oracle also cured psychological illnesses by using sudden psychological breakdowns. The Minyan Orchomenus with its eponymous hero, who had three daughters, Leucippe, Arsippe and Alcithoe, who were punished by Dionysus because they neglected to partake in his celebration. Leuctra (Battle of Leuctra) where the Thebeans defeated the undefeated Spartan army. Further to the back Chaeronea, where Philip II with his son Alexander defeated the allied Greek forces in 338 B.C.; the men of the Sacred Band of Thebes fell in this battle. Thebes of Cadmus, a town built since the bronze age, the scene of countless myths and tragedies of Aeschylus (“seven Against Thebes”), of Sophocles (“Oedipus the King”) and Euripides (“The Phoenician Women”), which out of hatred for the Athenians allied with the Persians and was defeated in the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.. Later it was destroyed by Alexander in 336 B.C., slaughtering 6.000 of its inhabitants.
Many memories are on this part of the route, some to be happy and some to be sad about. But there, on our right lies the city of Megara with the many colonies, Megara Hyblaea in 730 B.C. and Selinunte in Sicily in 628 B.C. Astacos in 722 B.C. Selymbria in 716 B.C. Chalcedon in 684 B.C. Byzantium in 660 B.C. and Heraclea of Bosphorus in 550 B.C.. The Megarians were forced to migrate because their territory was diminishing by the Athenians, who took Salamis and Eleusis from them, and the Corinthians who grabbed the area of Geraneia, cutting down their state by one third. A land in the narrows between Attica and Peloponnese, which became the theater of conflict between Sparta and Athens, between the Dorian and Ionian tribes, during the Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C.)
But there, we entered Attica, near the town of Eleutherae, where from the worship of Dionysus comes to Athens. From the smell of the sacrifices we understood that we were nearing Eleusis.

Acropolis of Athens

Route in Spacetime

Route in Spacetime

Seeing the Parthenon I remembered that Alexander had sent 300 armors there after Granicus with the inscription “Alexander of Philip and the Greeks, minus the Lacedaemonians, from Asia inhabited by barbarians”. The issue however still troubles me, who was his father Philip or Zeus? Leaving the Acropolis we pass by the Theater of Dionysus, The Auditorium of Pericles, the Olympion (Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens) where the tomb of Deucalion was located, exiting from the gate of Aegeas, over the river Ilissos rich in water which had its springs in mount Hymettus. On its banks the shrine of the Muses was erected, the fountain Callirhoe, the shrine of Demeter where the minor Mysteries of Eleusis were held. There, the platanus of Socrates. At this place they worshiped Pan, Achelous, Heracles and the wind Boreas, who from this place abducted Orithyia, one of the daughters of Erechteus and took her to Thrace, where he resides.
Athens, what a city, which 9.000 years ago fought off the invading Atlanteans, as Plato would say, who was now in Hades since 347 B.C. A strange city with thousands of philosophers and many schools. All of them are there in the Agora; the Sophists, Cynics, Megarian philosophers, Pythagoreans and the Physiologists. It is very difficult to mention them all, with their many differences, seeking the Truth.
What are we” and “where do we go” was their unsolved problem, which only they thought of, while the “barbarians” led a life without much thought. Thus Zeus was laughing at their problems. He kept murmuring, “look at what man is capable of thinking” and kept saying again and again “this is not good, because I foresee that in some distant future, they might abolish me, like I did to my father Cronus, and he to his father Uranus“. Because he remembered the conspiracy of his wife Hera. I often heard him say “these Greeks are restless, even after the deluge they remain the same“.
What problems do the gods face, I was thinking. But there, we were riding over mount Hymettus, on the right of its peak of 1.025 meters, where there was the statue of Zeus Hymettus and the altar of Rain Zeus, together with his son Foreseeing Apollo, he who predicted the rain so much needed by the Basin of Attica. On the left, in a distance of 6 kilometers we could see the temple of Braubronia Artemis.

Brauron

Athena’s Children Boarding School for Girls

Athena’s Children Boarding School for Girls

In the morning we start our journey for Delos. As soon as we are in open sea, on our right we see the island of Keos (Kea), named after the mythological hero Keos, where the Carians, Pelasgians and Leleges had first settled. The Carians are an antediluvian people of Attica of pelasgian descent, Car was the son of Phoroneus who decided in favor of Hera in her dispute with Poseidon over the Peloponnese. The Pelasgians are an antediluvian people of Arcadia; their primogenitor was Pelasgus, the father of Lycaon who succeeded his father while his mother was the Oceanide Meliboea. The Leleges were an antediluvian people of Laconia, with Lelex being their first king succeeded by his son Myles.

Kea in historic times was inhabited by Ionians who are a prehistoric people of Attica and Northern Peloponnese. Ion was the son of Xuthus and the daughter of Erechteus Creusa and descended from the line of Deucalion. The brother of Xuthus was Dorus. So they are populations emerging after the deluge.

After a while we was passing by a barren island (Gyaros), which as Hermes used to tell us, someday after many years, would be turned into a prison for political prisoners. We soon remembered that this did not exist in Athens, because they exiled politicians by “ostracism”, or forces them to die like Socrates. After Gyaros, on the left, we noticed the island of Andros or Andreus, son of Eurymachus, one of the suitors of Penelope who was killed by Odysseus, when he returned to the island disguised as a beggar. Others say that Andreus was the son of Anius, who himself was also a son of Apollo and ruled over Delos during the time of the Trojan War. The mother of Anius was Rhoeo (Pomegranate), who descended from Dionysus, through her father Staphylus. The Carians, whom we mentioned earlier were the first inhabitants of the island, followed by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Creatans, Pelasgians and the Ionians. In 480 B.C. it sided with the Persians, while in the Peloponnesian War it allied with Sparta.

Before we reached Delos, we found ourselves between two islands, Syros on the right, which was initially inhabited by the Phoenicians and later the Ionians and was part of the first Athenian League. While on the left was Ophiusa (Tinos), with the many snakes and the famous temple of Poseidon and his wife Amphitrete, who is the queen of the sea, a daughter of Doris, one of the daughters of Oceanus and Nereus, who had the ability of transformation. The Nereids (sea waves) come from him (Nereus). Ophiusa was also an ally of Athens.
As we were reaching Delos, we noticed on the left behind the island of Apollo, the island Mykonos, named after the son of Anius. Its last inhabitants were the Ionians, led there by Hippocles, the son of Neleus and father of Phorbius.

Delos

East Gate of the Gods (Life)

Mountain of the Gods

ROUTE INFORMATION – T.B.D. : Spring 2019

Central Greece

Historic Landmarks

  • Necromanteion
  • Dodoni
  • Dion

4/5 Culture Shock

Total Length 1050 km

7 Riding Days

Intermediate Skills Level

45% Offroad

Hotels and (1) Camping

National Forest of TBD

Middle May – Middle October

FAQ

Packing List

Lodging

Rent A Ride

Service

Brochure (coming soon)

Necromanteion

West Gate of the Mortal

West Gate of the Mortal

On the way to mount Olympus, we learned many different things. For starters, Alcibiades, was murdered in 404 B.C. and our opinion of him changed when we found out how much he had harmed his homeland, Athens. We found out about the destruction of the campaign in Sicily in 413 B.C., the death of Nicias and the annihilation of the 50.000 men, many of whom lived as prisoners in the quarries in Syracuse; about the surrender of the Athenians and the Thirty Tyrants imposed by the Spartans; about the march of the Ten Thousand in 401 B.C. and the death of Socrates, in 399 B.C.; about the hegemony of Thebes and the battles in Leuctra in 371 B.C. as well as Mantineia in 362 B.C., where Epaminondas was killed. Namely the whole collapse of the city-states, which was leading the country to a financial and sociopolitical crisis.
And yet, as things seemed dark in the Greek region, Philip II, the king of Macedonia appears since 356 B.C., defeating in Chaeronea in 338 B.C. the coalition of the Athenians and Thebians and thus putting things in order.
We were over the Athamanika (Tzoumerka) when Hermes reminded us about the murder of Philip II in 336 B.C. He then reassured us that everything will be fine, since – in his words – “Father Zeus has provided for the future of Greece. Alexander, the son of Philip II, will follow the advise of Isocrates, even though he died two years after that, in 338 B.C. The Greeks will unite under his scepter.” How strange a race are these Greeks, we thought, one moment they kill one another and the next they become brothers.

But there it is, the spot where the ArK of Deucalion landed (Ancient Greek flood myths), which I could see on my way to the Necromanteion, on top of the Athamanika.
Athamas was a son of Aeolus and grandson of Hellen, who was a son of Deucalion who was a son of Prometheus, namely of the cousin of Zeus. Athamas was the king of Boeotia and agreed to raise the young Dionysus, but Hera in her anger drove him mad and he killed his son Learchus, from his second marriage. It was he who in his first marriage with Nephele, fathered Phrixus and Helle. Helle drowned in Hellespont and Phrixus reached Colchis, creating the myth of the golden fleece.

After the murder of his son, Athamas was driven out of Boeotia and, following the oracle given to him in Delphi, he settled on this mountain giving it his name. It is the second most important mountain after Olympus. Euripides and Sophocles wrote their tragedies based on his myth.
The spot where the Ark of Deucalion landed, lies on the course from the Necromanteion to Olympus (point Δ); Jason, the relative of Phrixus passed from that exact spot, coming from Iolcos, to reach the Oracle of Dodoni. From Iolcos he embarked on the Argonautic Campaign, having first built the prow of Argo from oak wood he took from the Oracle of Dodona.
It is the next tallest mountain of Thessaly, after Olympus, and, as it seems, the waters of the deluge receded through the Necromanteion to Hades and from then to the Ocean of the Ancients which surrounds the Earth.

There, the ancient Metropolis (“Μήτρα” is Greek for Womb + “Πόλη” is Greek for City) which along with Trikke, Pelinnaioi, Gomfoi and Ithome, constituted the fortified square of the Thessalians. Metropolis was the center of the Thessalian Leauge with a powerful acropolis. This city took its name from Thessalus, who was a son of Haemon, who was the hero of the region which was initially called Haemonia. Haemon arrived here from Thesprotia.
At a distance of 116 kilometers from the spot where the Ark of Deucalion landed, to the right of my route, lies Iolcos, the inhabitants of which were Pelasgians just like the first inhabitants of Epirus, which was called Pelasgia, that is why Homer names the Dodonian Zeus Pelasgic. His sanctuary is located on the left of our route, at a distance of 20 kilometers.

Dodoni

Religious Center of Epirus

Religious Center of Epirus

We had traveled a fair distance from the spot of the Ark and we were still thinking about the creation of the human race by Deucalion and Pyrrha, who threw stones over their shoulders to create the humans. We were passing over the river Lethaeus and Lethaea came to my mind, the wife of Olenus, who were turned to stone because Lethaea was bragging that she was fairer than the goddesses. However I felt that this must have been the spot where Deucalion and Pyrrha were throwing the stones, because it is strange for the river to be called that, just a few kilometers from the spot where the Ark landed. Moreover just next to us is the location of the Meteora, the standing rocks up to 400 meters in height, that span in an area with a surface of 30 square kilometers.
This was the land of the Perrhaebians, a prehistoric people of Thessaly, which took part in the Trojan War. One of them Guneus, the son of Ocytus, was the leader of the Aenianes and the Rerrhaebians army, but also a suitor of Helen of Troy, that is the reason he joined the campaign. The Aenianes were also a prehistoric people residing in Dodona. They were part of the conference of the Greeks, namely the Delphic Amphictyony, founded by Amphictyon, the son of Pyrrha and deucalion, who lived in Phtiotis.

We were thinking about all of this while getting very close to Mount Olympus and suddenly we saw before us a huge mountain over the clouds covered in snow. It was the residence of Zeus and from there the god decided for the fate of Gods and men. We had already passed from the river Titaresius, where the Lapith Mopsus was born.
Mopsus was the son of Ampyx and Chloris, and joined the Argonautic campaign as a seer alongside Idmon, where they both died. Idmon was killed in Mariandyni, on the way to Colchis, by a boar and Mopsus died in Libya bitten by a venomous snake. The Lapiths were a prehistoric people of Thessaly and were related to the Centaurs, who initially lived in Perrhaebia. The Centaurs were monstrous hybrids, human from the waist up with the lower half of a horse, most of whom were driven away by the Lapiths, that is why we did not meet any Centaurs.
The further we distanced ourselves from the son of Macedon, Pindus, after whom the whole mountain range from Grammos to the Corinthian gulf was named; maybe it was the death of that lad which darkened this side of our homeland. Because to the west is where the wild and mysterious side of Greece could be found.

Olympus is the most beautiful mountain and we love exploring it. It is a volume rising steeply from the surrounding areas, with 1.600 species of plants many trees, but also animals and birds, that is why the Muses, born from Zeus, gather here. It has plenty of waters, from the snow on its peaks, which when the sunlight falls make the area shine. That is why it was called Olympus which means “Full of Light” (Ολόφωτος). Down bellow on its base, in the area of Pieria, there is the Sanctuary of Zeus, founded by the first king of Thessaly, after he was saved from the deluge. Up there, on the altar of Zeus, every new year the kings of Macedonia offered sacrifices, in their month of Hyperberetaiaos (September-October) according to their own customs; when the sign of Libra appeared in the sky, which symbolized the justice of Zeus towards gods and men.

Dion

Religious Center of Macedonia

Religious Center of Macedonia

Roaming Olympus through the mountains and plains, we understood that the “present” was every moment we could feel the beats of our heart, because there the gods are eternal and time loses its meaning. Only down bellow did Alexander struggled with it, advancing rapidly to Asia Minor of the state of Darius. His victory in Issus in 333 B.C. made the Olympian Zeus very happy for his son, because Alexander won without his help. On the other hand the merciful god was very sad about the degradation of Darius. Fate played an ugly game with him.
We was ordered to secretly leave for Delos, because the celebration of Apollo was to be held there and the jealous Hera would not let Zeus go. Leto, the darling of Zeus, found sanctuary on the barren island of Delos, which flowed endlessly on the sea. As a reward, the god stabilized it on four pillars forever and changed its name to Delos (bright, overt) from Ortygia, because it was the place that the god of light Apollo (Sun) was to be born.
We started traveling again in the company of Hermes who had to transport other souls to Hades, that is why he would pass again from Delphi, to ask Dionysus, who was replacing Apollo, if he had any orders from the god of light, before he would depart again for the hyperborean people.
Dionysus was a very peculiar god, because he had a difficult childhood, having Zeus for a father. The jealous Hera was trying to kill him. His mother was Semele, the daughter of Cadmus and Harmony, who was thundered by Zeus when she asked him to show himself to her with all of his might.
He was the god who discovered the vine, but Hera drove him mad and he roamed in many places in this state, like Egypt, Syria and Thrace. From there he left and reached as far as India, conquering many peoples. I did not forget that the god and my traveling companion had received soothsaying lessons from Apollo, that is why I believed him.
Through these and other hardships Dionysus decided to remain close to the humans, that is why he was a beloved god and was celebrated everywhere. So the god created the theater and, where comedies, tragedies but also the satyrical drama were performed.

Land of the Dead

ROUTE INFORMATION – T.B.D. : Spring 2019

Central Greece

Historic Landmarks

  • Eleusis
  • Sanctuary of Cabeiri
  • Delphi
  • Necromanteion

5/5 Culture Shock

Total Length 1050 km

7 Riding Days

Intermediate Skills Level

45% Offroad

Hotels and (1) Camping

National Forest of Parnassus, Oiti

Middle May – Middle October

FAQ

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Lodging

Rent A Ride

Service

Brochure (coming soon)

Acropolis of Athens

Route in Spacetime

Route in Spacetime

As the rhetorician and satirist Lucian wrote  “… ascending to the Acropolis I flew over the cliff …” towards the land of Hades, the Necromanteion of Acheron, with the help of the psychopomp Hermes. On our right we saw the Agora of Athens and on our left the Pnyx, where the assembly of the citizens took place (Ecclesia). After a while we were passing over the temple of Artemis Aristovouli, that was discovered accidentally in June 1958 during the construction of a small private house at the junction of Nileos Street and Irakleidon Street at Thission. In front of the small Greek temple, an engraved column was discovered dedicating the temple to goddess Artemis Aristovouli, the foundation of which was personally insured by Themistocles. Exiting the walls of Athens, we pass over the Gate of Piraeus, leaving to our right the Double Gate and the Graveyard of the Kerameikos.

Further down we came across the Sacred Lake (Lake Koumoundourou), to the right of the Reidi (salty sacred lakes used for cleansing), where during the celebration of the Mysteries of Eleusis the honor guard of Athens awaited wearing black tunics. Leaving behind Mount Aigaleo, where Xerxes watched, to our left, the Battle of Salamis. And behold, Hermes showed me the vast ritual center of Eleusis bellow us.
It was during the month of Hekatombaion (July- August) of 415 B.C. and as we found out Alcibiades along with Nicias and Lamachus already were on board the Athenian ships alongside the troops on their way to Sicily. When the men boarded the ship, the usual prayers and toasts were performed with gold and silver cups, with the participation of the citizens. After the hymns were chanted, the ships reached the open sea. They descended along the eastern Peloponnese and bypassing the Cape of Maleas, just outside of Cythera, after having circled around Laconia and Messenia, ascended to the western Peloponnese, passing between Zakynthos and Cephalonia and Lefkada, heading to the north of Corfu, to reach across, Southern Italy.

Eleusis

Ritual Center of Greece

Ritual Center of Greece

A lot of people started gathering from the surrounding area for the great celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries in the month Boedromion (September-October), when the sign of Virgo appeared which symbolized Persephone. The celebration would end when the sign of Libra appeared, which symbolized the decision of Zeus for Persephone to return to the palace of Hades; thus nature deadened.

Constellation of Hydra, Corvus and Crater

Constellation of Hydra, Corvus and Crater

The mystics arrived in a ritual procession and no uninitiated were allowed to cross the courtyard. In Athens Alcibiades and nine more were denounced , for the amputation of the Hermai and for the parody of the Eleusinian mysteries and were called to be tried. Thus Alcibiades , abandoning Nicias and Lamachus in Italy, fled to Sparta of King Agis II. The Athenian court, as I was informed later, sentenced Alcibiades and his accomplices in absentia to death.

After this short tour in the Shrine of Eleusis, I was forced to resume the journey to the Necromanteion under the obtrusive pressure of Hermes. The Messenger of Zeus also had other orders from the father of the gods and men and was in a hurry to take my soul to Hades to be tried.

So, following the course, we passed over Erenia where the grave of Autonoe, the daughter of Cadmus, was located, who had come here from Thebes as soon as she found out about the death of her son Actaeon by the hand of Artemis, because he beheld her naked bathing in a spring. Further along the way we came across Aigosthena, where there is the shrine of the seer Melampus,the son of Amythaon  and Eidomene. Melampus was called this way because when he was born, his mother forgot out of oversight to put his feet in the shade.

Further along the way we flew over the mountain of Cithaeron, which took its name from the king of Plataeae and we saw it on our right. They used to say that Cithaeron advised Zeus , when Hera did not give into his embrace, to construct a female statue and wrap it in an overcoat. Then Cithaeron dispersed that Zeus had kidnapped Plataea, the daughter of Asopus, to make her his wife. The jealous Hera rushed and grabbed the overcoat and saw the statue. Then she laughed and reconciled with the god. So every year in Plataeae they celebrated the marriage of Hera to Zeus.

After a short  while, we found ourselves in mount Helicon, the mountain of medicinal herbs, which was the home of the Muses (Valley of the Muses). Here there was a shrine of Zeus and the spring Hippocrene, which was struck open in the rock of the mountain by the hoof of the winged steed Pegasus. Between Cithaeron and Helicon, to the right in a distance of 17 kilometers from our course and to the northwest of Thebes, in a distance of roughly 6 kilometers, there was the town of Cabeiri. They say that from the army of Xerxes, those who remained with Mardonius and enter the sanctuary of the Cabeiri, out of disrespect and to loot, were driven mad and were killed in the sea and precipices. The wrath of the Cabeiri was unmerciful for the uninitiated and the irreverent.

Sanctuary of Cabeiri

Religious Center of Thrace

Religious Center of Thrace

We have already arrived on the mountain Parnassus, which took its name from the hero of the area, the son of the nymph Kleodora and Kleopompus, through the intervention of the god Poseidon. Parnassus had founded there the Oracle of Pythos, which was later taken over by Apollo.

We found ourselves here during the period when the god Apollo was preparing for his journey to the Hyperboreans, mythical people who lived “beyond the North Wind“. During his absence, his place would be occupied by Dionysus, the celebrations of whom start with the harvest of the vine in the month Metageitnion (August-September); namely during the period, when the constellation of Crater appeared in the sky, which was used for the mixing of wine with water (Constellation of Hydra, Corvus and Crater).

Delphi

Administrative and Religious Center of Greece

Administrative and Religious Center of Greece

Leaving Delphi behind us, we entered the lands of the Locres Ozales and passed over Amfissa, which took its name from the daughter of Macareas, son of Aeolus, who incestuously joined his sister Canace. Then Aeolus threw their child to the dogs and ordered his daughter to commit suicide. But also Macareas killed himself when his passion became known. The first inhabitants of Amfissa were the Cyclopes. During the Peloponnesian War it joined the coalition of Sparta. Its inhabitants perform some mysteries which are said to be about the Cabeiri.
Bellow us was the river Daphnos (Mornus), which took its name from Daphne, a demigod of Sicily, who was son of Hermes and had died at the prime of his youth; that is why the god was quite moved. The cause of his demise was his love for the Nymph Nomea, who never forgave his relationship with the daughter of the king, who deceitfully seduced him, after intoxicating him. Nomea enraged blinded him and the now blind Daphne sang mournful songs, until he fell from a rock and was killed. His father then took him with him to the Heavens.
On our left, bellow Amfissa, lies Mounea, the inhabitants of which offer sacrifices to the meek gods after sunset and eat meat before the sunrise. Moreover on our left, towards the sea, lies Nafpactos which takes its name from some Nymph. There is a shrine of Aphrodite there, where the widows ask the goddess for a second husband. Near the sea the shrine of Poseidon was located and a little further that of Asclepius.
There is the river Evinos which was previously called Lykormas and took the name of the son of Ares, who fell in war trying to capture Idas, who had kidnapped his daughter. That is where Heracles killed the ferryman centaur Nessus who attempted to rape his wife Deianira. Heracles ended his life at the springs of Evinos, on the mountain Oeta near the peak, falling into the fire which Philoctetes had lit for the hero (Pyra of Herakles). The reason was because Heracles, after his victory against Eurytus, asked his wife for a new tunic, to establish a celebration for Zeus. However the tunic worn by the hero was drenched in the blood of Nessus and it afflicted his skin without him being able to take it off. Thus his wife, who had been tricked by Nessus, when she realized what she had done, killed herself and Heracles decided to throw himself into the fire. But a thunder was heard and the hero ascended to the Heavens on a cloud.
Aetolia, up to the river Achelous, is an isolated region, mountainous and with poor roads. Its antediluvian inhabitants were the Pelasgians and the Courites, who were identified as the Dactyl of Crete and the Korybantes, who were the first men born from Gaia. It took its name from the son of Endymion, Aetolus, who fled here from the Peloponnese because he had killed king Apis. The Athenians claimed that this tribe of the Aetolians was barbarous, spoke an incomprehensible language and ate raw meat, but was the largest in population. Despite this, they would create in Thermo the Aetolian Leauge and seize control of Delphi. Thermo is on our left in a distance of 15 kilometers, near lake Trichonida; the location of the temple of Apollo and Artemis. The town was filled with artistic treasures; most of which was a product of looting by the Aetolians, who had reached as far as Dion and Dodoni.
In front of us we can see the raging Acheloous, whom Heracles fought for the sake of Deianira. This river god is an untamed beast, son of chthonic gods, Oceanus and Tethys. Once, enraged because some Nymphs forgot him in their sacrifice near the banks, he suddenly flooded and drove them into the sea, creating the islands of the Echinades.
Further down we entered the land of the Amphilochians, who founded their city near the Gulf of Ambracia. Its name is taken from Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus, who was one of the suitors of Helen of Troy, that is why he participated in the campaign. After a while to the right we come across the great Corinthian colony of Ambracia (Arta), which was founded in 625 B.C. by Gorgus, an illegitimate son of the tyrant of Corinth, Cypselus. It takes its name from Ambracia, a daughter of Melaneus, who was a son of Apollo. The town was near the river Aracthus – who was a brother of the firstborn Achelous – whose springs were in Pindos, the great mountain range which includes the Athamanic mountains (Tzoumerka), on the peaks of which the ark of Deucalion landed, in the period of the deluge (the flood of Deucalion ended the First Bronze Age). It laid there on an altitude of 2.429 meters, 40 km to our right.
In a while we would reach the Necromanteion, in a sudden rainstorm which made us shiver even more than the course towards the unknown we were about to embark on. Hermes noticed this and, before we entered the entrance to Hades, he tried to encourage us. He is a good god, sweet tempered and we listened with devotion.

What is life, he told us, but a dream that you will relive in another body. If you were good, you will ascend and might even be reborn as a king. So do not shiver and try to understand the cycle of life. Down there you will see many good and evil people, but before all this you will meet your own, whom you loved and departed before you did, waiting for you.

However I have to deliver you to Charon and leave to bring more souls, this is my job. So here, take a drachma and give it to the ferryman to take you across, to the land of the dead.

Necromanteion

West Gate of the Mortal

West Gate of the Mortal

Among many others we also passed to the Palace under the gaze of Cerberus, feeling the invisible hand of Hades pushing us. Before we entered the dark tunnel, we took with us the sweet smile of Persephone which gave us courage. It was impossible to forget this slender lady with the long black dress, which fluttered like a wraith, without any air.

Leaving the palace of Persephone in the Necromanteion, we headed for Olympus, greeting the good lady. Persephone had great renown in the space of the chthonic gods, but the celestial gods respected her as well because she was a daughter of Demeter, as an intermediate union of the celestial and chthonic space. Hermes on the other hand, tirelessly made the trip Olympus (Dion), Delphi and Necromanteion, carrying the orders of Zeus.

Acropolis of Athens

Route in Spacetime

The Acropolis of Athens, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was populated since the Neolithic era and during the Mycenean times was fortified with walls that protected the officers of the army. Later, in the place of the palace, there was built a temple dedicated to the gods Poseidon and Athena, that was destroyed later during the Archaic era twice, and was rebuilt for the second time at the beginning of the 5th century B.C.

Reconstruction of the Acropolis and Areus Pagus in Athens, by Leo von Klenze (1846)

The construction of the walls of Acropolis started with Kimon (Greek: Κίμων) and Themistocles (Greek: Θεμιστοκλῆς), Athenian politicians and generals in mid-5th century BC, and was completed with Pericles (Greek: Περικλῆς), a prominent and influential Greek statesman and general of Athens during its golden age and his cooperators – the architect Iktinos and the general supervisor and sculptor Fidias – have built Parthenon (dedicated to the goddess Athena).

The Acropolis of Athens is a privileged archeological site for a variety of reasons. It is Located in the middle of a plain 22 km long and 10 km wide, with an altitude of 156.20 meters. So the Acropolis is towering over the surrounding hills and becomes peripherally visible from long distances, without the head of the visitor assuming a discomforting position while observing it. This way, especially in ancient times, the space functioned symbolically and defensively for the residents of Athens. When we climb the Acropolis we observe that there is a comfortable visual image around the area in every direction with great clarity for at least 50 km. Athens emerged victorious creating two battles – symbols: the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) and the Battle of Salamis (480 BC) the first is connected with the oligarchic Athens and the second with the democratic Athens. The building complex of the Acropolis that the visitor observes nowadays, was constructed after the Persian Wars and after these victorious battles.

Then the Athenian League began to develop, under the pretext of addressing a future Persian threat, under the auspices of the Athens and consisted of more than 236 city-states (some even raise them to 400).

Its political and economic sphere of influence extended to a radius of 1,200 km.

All these are important in relation to the logic of the Acropolis building projects and this is because the projects we see on the Sacred Rock do not concern Athens as a city-state but Athens as a superpower, City-Patroness of the alliance.

Propylaea


The Greek word propylaeon (προπύλαιον) is the union of the prefix pro- (before) plus the plural of gate, meaning literally “that which is before the gates. Climbing the stairs of the Acropolis let us remember for a little while the myths about Athena the goddess who protects the city of Athens.

Crossing the threshold of the Propylaea we observe the separation of the columns in Triads. We enter a timeless space that is the Past, Present and Future. The Propylaea, which we pause for a moment to marvel at their art, cost the Athenian State 290 talents that in todays rates would sum up to 71.3 million euro (for materials and labor).

Parthenon


The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενώνας) is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power and was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, and one of the world’s greatest cultural monuments.

To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory.

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The believer reaching at the end of the passage, admired the colossal bronze statue of Athena, perhaps a project by Phidias. At the same time he could admire the Athenian Ionic Erechtheum and the Doric Parthenon. These are two structures with a completely different aesthetic.

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On the one hand in the Erechtheion Athena Polias protector of the earth’s forces and fertility is a tender mother full of femininity, on the other hand in the Parthenon Athena Pallas, the warlike patron of the city is presented virile and terrifying. The Parthenon was built to commemorate the victory at Salamis because the sea was the advantage of Athens.
It is of course reasonable to assume that Pericles could not have decided to build the brilliant temple of the Virgin which cost 500 talents, that would be 132.000.000 euros today (as much as a modern day 44 km long national highway of European standards), without politically taking advantage of the construction in the area.
From this point, when the Attic sky is clear, we can relive the terrible battle between the Persians and Greeks.
So when the Panathenaic procession entered the Acropolis area, every Athenian entered into another dimension like when passing through an Arch of Triumph.
Here the gods were close and next to him, perhaps they even touched him (something similar happens today with the Christian procession of Tinos). So the relationship God – Man was immediate. And the pillars, the geometric shapes, the sculptures etc. were playing the role of a symbolic reminder to man (just like the hexapteryga and the icons of the Christian world today).
The believer who followed the Panathenaic procession was leaving optimistic. And as he timelessly entered the area of the Sacred Rock (Past – Present – Future), he also timelessly left (Future – Present – Past). He saw the Past before him towards Salamis, since the Propylaea have this visual direction.
In the Sacred Site (Acropolis), man participates actively, seeing visions and creating performances (like in the various sacred sites of the monotheistic cults).

Delphi

Administrative and Religious Center of Greece

Delphi, the “Navel of the Earth“, the “Common Hearth of all the Greeks“, was the most sacred site of Ancient Greece. The Antiquities curator B. Pentzatos and the Supervisor M. Sarla describe the site of Delphi using these words.
Apollo came to Delphi together with the Doric tribes and as a patriarchal god he pushed aside the matriarchal deities worshiped there.
From the archaeological digs we conclude that the Myceneans had settled in this very place and that the Oracle of Gaia flourished up until 1100B.C. It is from there that the “Descend of the Dorians” begins which shakes Greece, and finalizes the conquest of Delphi by Apollo.
The myth which concerns Apollo and is in accordance with the archaeological findings is in summary as follows: Apollo, who is the son of Zeus and Leto, a celestial god, kills Python, who, as a child of Gaia is a chthonic god. But, because of the blood relation of Apollo with Zeus and of Zeus with Gaia, Apollo does not celebrate his victory, but in order to be purified, he leaves the Oracle, going to Thessaly as a slave for 7 years and he returns to Delphi as a dominant god. But yet again, every year for three months he goes to the Hyperborean countries for purification, leaving Dionysus in his place.

Constellation of Hydra, Corvus and Crater

image 05 – Constellation of Hydra, Corvus and Crater

The constellation of Crater (Dionysus) was linked to the constellation of the Corvus (Apollo), through the constellation of Hydra (image 05); all three constellations are visible from Greece. Part of Hydra is visible in the picture and it extends behind the Parthenon, towards the zodiac of Cancer. This way Hydra has a length, and starts from the zodiac of Cancer, crosses through the zodiac of Leo and reaches the zodiac of Virgo. Namely it remains in the sky during the months July – August – September, therefore during the whole summer.

The Corvus (crow), which was a bird dedicated to the worship of Apollo, was sent by the god to spy on the nymph Aegle, who, because of her beauty, was called Koronida (crow) and was unfaithful, because she was afraid that Apollo, with whom she had given birth to Asclepius, would abandon her. Therefore the clergy at some point created the relationship of the constellations of Hydra and Raven. Later on with the emergence of Dionysus they created the relation of the constellations of the Hydra, Corvus and Crater, and Aegle became one of the Nymphs of Dionysus.
All that we have described, proves the connection of the celestial dome with the archaeological site of Delphi through astrological and astronomical processes, which also indicate the intellectual level of the clergy.
Dionysus was the link who connected the chthonic gods with Apollo, who was the interpreter of the orders sent by the celestial gods using Hermes as a messenger. This relationship of Apollo and Dionysus essentially represents “man” as thought (Apollo) and as passion (Dionysus), which converge or diverge depending on the social choice of men. Thus, the form of Dionysus will change respectively from good looking to repulsive.

Temple of Apollo

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The relationship between Dionysus and Apollo is reflected on the pediments of the 4th century B.C. temple, which was completed in 330 B.C. and is the sixth consecutive one that replaced the previous archaic one which was destroyed by earthquakes (373 B.C.). Pausanias mentions that in the eastern pediment the arrival (“Epiphany”) of Apollo in Delphi was depicted, as it was also the case in the previous one which was destroyed. On the western pediment Dionysus was depicted together with the Maenads. Architects of the temple were Spintharus of Corinth and later on Xenodorus (restorations). The sculptures were created by Praxias and Androsthenes.

The temple possesses a technically illogical deviation to the North, which however can be explained by the eastern pediment of the temple, which shows the region of the Hyperborean people where Apollo comes from to the temple, namely the Cimmerian people (Ukraine). The deviation from the original positioning of the temple was assumed between 545 and 500 B.C. when the fifth consecutive temple of the Alcmaeonidae (above image III) was built with the archaic dimensions, identical to the previous one (6×15), with the code K. (6) (1) (5) (6) (3), namely according to the Pythagorean interpretation:

(6) = HARMONIOUS TEMPLE
(1) = GOD – APOLLO – AXIS – SUN
(5) = LIGHT
(6) = TRIODITIS – HECATEBELETES
(3) = LOXEAS

In the same site of Delphi there is also the temple of another apocalyptic god, Asclepius, a short distance down from the temple of Apollo (exact location here). This god restores man to a healthy condition and has the ability to raise the dead. Therefore, only the apocalyptic gods were gathered in Delphi (Apollo, Dionysus and Asclepius), who replaced the chthonic matriarchal deities; besides, Delphi is mentioned in the Iliad as the oracle of Peitho. These three gods will also constitute the logical basis for the christian worship, because Jesus covers their basic properties; namely he is born, dies and is reborn, like Apollo (Sun) and Dionysus, he has connections to the celestial space like Apollo and with the chthonic space like Dionysus, he even resurrects the dead like Asclepius.
These new gods upgraded logically since 1100 B.C. the Greek worship, extending human life with the concept of future rebirth through reincarnation. This also indicates the logic of the prevalence of the new worship, without religious wars. Thus the deceased, while in older times had his head turned to the north and his face to the west (Necromanteion), now the face turns to the east (Delos) waiting for rebirth like the Sun with the help of Apollo, Dionysus and Asclepius.

The Celestial Sphere

Route of the Soul

On the upper part of the above picture (Route of the Soul), we observe the relationship between Apollo and Dionysus, where the commands of the celestial gods are transmitted to Apollo, who in turn transmits them to Dionysus and he passes them to the chthonic gods. The soul, with the aid of Hermes is headed west to the Necromanteion in order to be judged.
This logic of man, namely the desire to extend his life or to be reborn, is valid even to this day. Modern day society tries with the technological means at its disposal to defeat old age and death. This logic however has its infrastructure deeply rooted in the Ancient civilization. So from reincarnation it transitioned to resurrection during the christian period. Otherwise it is very doubtful if modern day society would experiment for the extension (Rebirth) of human life. So then, issues that for us nowadays are self explanatory, have undergone a time spanning process.
With the upgrade of the cult, although Delphi replaces the chthonic gods with the apocalyptic ones, it does not abolish them; thus the oracle becomes a Geo-Solar center. Later on during the reign of emperor Augustus and his Apollonian religious policy, the oracle of Delphi will become a Solar center.
We observe then, that the religious reforms are localized in Delphi, the other religious centers are either funded or abolished. Therefore it is Delphi and the clergy that process the worship. Moreover it is from this oracle that everyone both within and outside of Greece seeks guidance for social and political issues. It is the source of information for the city-states concerning colonization, with an “Ambiguous Oracle” when the interests of the city-states were clashing.

Necromanteion

West Gate of the Mortal

The Necromateion (or Nekromateion) of Ephyra is as important as Delphi and Delos, because it is one of the basic elements of the religion of the Greeks. Namely it is a part of a complete logic. If Delos symbolizes the beginning of a new life, the Necromanteion is both the end and the beginning of a new life, according to the movement of Apollo (Sun).

The Celestial Sphere

We observe then in the above image, that the Sun on 22/12 stops its downward course to the South, the moment it is found in the sign of Capricorn, in the month of Poseidon (December-January) which is visible from Greece, and starts its upward course to the North. It is when the winter begins and the human souls passed after death through that zodiac to reach the Heavens (“Gate of the Gods” – Winter Solstice). In reverse on 21/6 the Sun stops its upwards course to the North, the moment it is found in the Sign of Cancer in the month of Skirophorion (June-July) and starts descending to the South. It is the beginning of the Summer and the souls descended through this zodiac to enter new bodies (“Gate of Mortals” – Summer Solstice).

To see the function of this system, we should at the same time raise the axis EE’ of the celestial Sphere up to Delphi, which will become a Cosmic Center. Thus the “gate of the gods” will be found to the right of Delos and the “gate of mortals” to the left of the Necromanteion.

The position of the Necromanteion as a central gate to Hades is identified with the movement of the Sun and it can not be located outside of the straight line Delos-Necromanteion. The non existence of the Necromanteion also abolishes the function of reincarnation. So, the more the Greek civilization spreads, the further the Necromanteion is distanced from Delos. That is why Lucian talks about Hades beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Gibraltar) in 160 A.D.

Gate of Mortals

The Necromanteion or Nekyomanteion (“νέκυς” is the Greek word for dead) of Acheron (image IV) is located in the west part of Epirus, in the province of Preveza, north of the river Acheron. Homer mentions it alongside the sanctuary of Dodoni. It is estimated that it began its operation back in 1500 B.C.

The site of the Necromanteion was visited by many heroes for various reasons, like Theseus, Heracles, the son of Achilles Neoptolemy, Orpheus, Aeneas, Laodamia and Odysseus. They could of course enter Hades through some secondary entrance, but they would end up in the same place, because the acreage of Hades is fixed, the Necromanteion, because here lies the Palace of Hades and Persephone, where the river Acheron flows. This way the site of the Necromanteion was advertized so much, that the believers flocked there by the thousands. Moreover, a more systematic promotion of the cults happened during the reign of Pyrrhus, the son of Aeacides and Phthia, who propagated that he was descendant, on his father’s side, from Achilles. Pyrrhus was also the second cousin of Alexander the Great. Among the gods he promoted was also Persephone.

At Acheron river, time has a different meaning

Acheron was a son of Gaia who was sentenced to remain underground because he helped the Giants in their battle with the Olympian Gods. So this cold river for large periods of time was lost under the earth and reappeared, forming a dirty stagnation, with a depressing landscape; the lake Acherusia (image V) the name of which comes from the word “άχος” (achos) which means “sorrow”. Then it headed to the west towards the Ionian Sea. Cocytus, the “river of sighs” and Phlegethon, the “fiery river”, were two tributaries which both flowed into the river and the lake. In Cocytus also flowed the underground waters of the chasm of Styx. It was in this chasm that Thetis sank her son Achilles to make him immortal, with sole vulnerable spot the part of the foot where she held him from.
The scene was completed by deaths from malaria, because of the mosquitoes that arrived in swarms in the surrounding area and of the birds or animals which died from the fumes of the lake. Moreover, in the winter the whole flatland stagnated, leaving a hill above the surface of the water, like an island, on which the Necromanteion stood, at the point when Acheron moved towards the sea.

So then Charon transports with his boat the souls through the swamps of Acheron, to the other bank of the river for the cost of an obol (1/6 of a drachma). Acheron, just like the Nile of Egypt, is a border between Life-East and Death-West, as it descends from the North to the South. Charon directs the funerary boat and the souls row, through the environment we described. On the other bank Hades (Invisible) awaits with Cerberus and Orthus, his dogs, to transport the souls to the chthonic space, in order for them to be judged by Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon who were brothers of Minos, and the son of Zeus Aeacus. After judgment, the souls would proceed either towards the fountain of oblivion, next to the white cypress to the left of Hades, or they would follow the path to the fountain of remembrance, to the right, walking towards immortality. Judgment was about the serving of justice, namely punishment for those who headed towards the fountain of oblivion and reward for those who headed for the fountain of remembrance. The opinion of the Orphics was that the soul, depending on the mistakes of man while living, will enter in another body of an animal or human for catharsis and deliverance.

Necromanteion

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Necromateion of Ephyra

The Necromanteion (Image VI) is composed by the main Sanctuary which is a square with sides of 22 meters, within an auxiliary site that surrounds it. If we compare the Telesterion of Eleusis with the main shrine of the Necromanteion, we will observe that the two buildings are similar because both are structural representations of Hades. Their structural differences come from the different use of the sacred sites.

Archeologist S. Dacaris dates the main Sanctuary of the Necromanteion 150 later than that of Eleusis; this indicates that it followed the structural logic of Ictinus (Pericleon). Despite this, the exterior of the Necromanteion seems structurally primitive, like the walls of Tiryns, namely a construction based on the Lesbian structure. According to architect and archeologist A. Orlando, this system is known in the 7th century B.C., rises in the 6th century B.C. and declines in the 5th century B.C. In any way, it is clear that the clergy follows certain basic construction models so that the believer is not confused.

The believer enters the Necromanteion from the North through a courtyard with the auxiliary spaces and the rooms for priests and visitors. From there he would turn to the east to enter the northern corridor of the oracle, where (to the left) there were rooms for the preparation of the visitor, a psychological and physical preparation, in a completely dark space, where circulation was only possible by candles. He ate foods, like in the funerary dinners, which essentially drugged him and he heard hollow prayers to the chthonic gods. After his cleansing with water, he followed, escorted by the priest, the eastern corridor, throwing along the way a stone on a pile to remove the bad influence. Next, washing his hands in a marble sink, like they do in catholic churches, he would enter with a western direction the corridor of the Labyrinth, which is located south, where he was completely disoriented and only with the help of the Priest he would be able to proceed. If the modern visitor repeats the same course blindfolded and with the help of a friend because the temple is in ruins, he will have the same result as the believers once had.

The Labyrinth was constructed by three arched metal gates, which represented the gates of Hades; therefore in this exact place begins the use of the curvilinear construction for the chthonic gods, (you can read more about Rectilinear and Curvilinear architecture here). The beliver would finally turn to the North and reach the main hall, where the invoked deceased of the visitor appeared in the back, accompanied by the idol of Persephone, who had her palace below the hall.

The thick walls of the main part of the sanctuary, according to the archeologist S. Dakaris, concealed hallways so that the Priests could move around unseen. In fact one such corridor was discovered between two exterior walls. Consequently the believer would talk to the back of the hall, asking for answers, which he actually received from the clergy. Of course no one questioned the process we described, since even Lucian, to avoid the accusation of “irreverence” in 160 A.D., moved the scene of necromancy from Acheron to Mesopotamia. During his departure, the believer left through a different exit, in absolute silence, because the announcement of anything he saw and heard incurred the death penalty.

The palace of Hades and Persephone still has strong presence

Below the central hall where the believer conversed, was located the Palace of Hades and Persephone, with the fifteen chthonic arches. The floor was natural rock, rugged, because it was about the chthonic nature – “Gaia”. In the back, the long and narrow room facing north ended in a rock wall, through which the souls passed to main Hades to be judged. It is from there that the souls came to meet the living believer who invoked them on the upper floor, from the roof of which, the idol of the goddess was raised and lowered. In the northern side of the basement of the Palace of Persephone then, exists a theoretical gate, in the form of a tunnel. And because it is about a soul, there was no reason for openings, as the souls can phase through matter. This is a logic that we inherited and that is why it does not cause us questions when we are told about it or we watch it in the movies.

George Baltoyannis

One of the Architectural problems of the Ancient word that concerned architect and author George Baltoyannis as a student of Architecture in Rome, was the Arch, specifically the Architectural solution to supporting large openings in constructions. According to his professors, the Arch was a Roman invention, unknown in the Ancient Greek World, but having visited many Greek archeological sites, something did not feel right. We had all witnessed the use of the Arc in Greek temples and constructions, long before the Roman Civilization. Could it be that George’s old university professors were wrong? Could the Arc be a Greek invention after all?

This simple question evolved into eleven-year research that kept bringing up new questions that needed answers. Finally, the books and theories of architect and author George Baltoyannis have been embraced by the scientific community, both by the University of Ioannina in Greece and the Università degli Studi dell’Aquila in Italy, where he was invited to give lectures to the students.

George Baltoyannis (Γεώργιος Μπαλτογιάννης) was born in Athens in 1941. He studied Architecture in Rome, Italy (Sapienza Università) and took part in many Art Exhibitions (Margutta – San Luca – Artecom – Palazzo Delle Esposizioni etc.).

He returned to Athens in 1970 and dealt with Architecture as a freelancer and at the same time as an employee in succession at the Greek Ministry of Defense (Pentagon), National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and the Autonomous Building Officers Organization (AOOA).

With more than 30 years of Historical research on the relation between Ancient Architecture and Ancient Religion, George Baltoyannis is the whiter of the Best Seller books:

Dionysus Revelation

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Dionysus Revelation (ed. Aldebaran – Athens 1997)

One of the Architectural Problems of the Ancient World, which puzzled me as a student of Architecture in Rome, was the Arch. That is the Architectural Solution, which for my professors was a Roman invention, unknown to the Ancient Greek World.

The same opinion prevails today, after 35 years. I noticed this on my last trip to Italy, where the Taormina tour guide repeated, that the Arch was a Roman invention. So I decided to deal with the matter and find out the truth, since, from the first moment, I felt that something special happened in the Greek Ancient World, whose achievements we see today with our own logic, without following the mentality of the ancient times.

Passing through the process of research with the eyes of the Ancients, I encountered unknown places and secret cults, who played a leading role in the shaping of Architecture and were a cosmic model, with Axes and Shapes, through which the ancients satisfied their religious Needs. At the same time, they attempted to convert the Theory into Reality, with constructions and Symbols, placing the Sacraments in specific points, with axial relations between them.

Here I met a world where Art was a component of a Global Logic, which should keep up as a Unity. Thus, was suggested that, behind the ancient wars and the struggles, there was a Constitutional Authority, that had the wisdom to impose the advice, having Religion as its tool.

Therefore, wanting to solve the problem of the Ancient Logic only with the findings, unilaterally without putting one’s imagination to work and without entering in their shoes, it is like working on a modern computer only to make subtractions. This is the main reason for the successes that many amateurs had against the professionals, such as the Schliemann case.

Acropolis through the blue eyes of the goddess Athena

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Acropolis through the blue eyes of the goddess Athena (ed. Aldebaran – Athens 1998)

Before we move towards the Sacred Rock of Acropolis, we must be mentally transported with our imagination in the 5th century B.C. Because this place, as all in the Ancient World, with the broader Geographical meaning of the term, were in a different Dimension than ours.

Inside the words and actions of the Ancient World were embedded the Symbols and the Mythology. People of the time took these under serious consideration since they were all about their religion. Moving an object now, for example, has only a practical meaning, instead of the Ancients was a combination of practical + symbolical action. So, an imminent war between two regiments could be postponed if the Gods did not approve through sacrifices. Sacrifices were the Contact and Dialogue between man and God.

With this logic, we will ascent the Sacred Rock of Acropolis and we will investigate the antiquities of the 5th century B.C. with the spirit of the Ancient.

This way we will the space back to life, even for a little while. But when we depart from this Sacred place, we will have understood that the Imagination of the modern cinematic movies derives directly from the Mythology of the Ancient World.

We will also discover that, other than the imagination, a Construction can be placed in Time and be connected with Religious and Actual facts, that give to that construction a fixed Location with a given Orientation.

W will also understand how does this Construction combine with the Structural Logic of surrounding buildings, serving specific needs, so that all of the Sacred places work as an interrelated Unity.

Sacred Architecture

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Sacred Architecture (ed. Esoptron – Athens 2002)

As a Christian, researching a dead religion like the Olympian Pantheon, it feels like something foreign which doesn’t affect you emotionally. However, when you are reading mythology, you start to wonder how thousands of years ago people could engage in deeper reasoning than you and thus you are led to places where face riddles impossible to imagine. Reading mythology you realize that you stand in front of a great religion, which you quickly become familiar with and you start to become enchanted by the wealth of Knowledge. Things that held no meaning for you to come to life in front of your eyes, and the rocks, the mountains or rivers acquire speech and grace, making your fantasy travel far away. You then start to realize that your ancestors did not live in a wild environment, but in an enchanting world, a paradise; your differences with them are minor and superficial. Then, you follow them in time, which slowly approaches you and comes to your own religion which you believe in and love.

However, all of a sudden fear is born and you want to explore your own space out of curiosity. You know that all the angels are watching you strictly from above, and you waver.

You know that someday you will die and you don’t want to depart wandering if there is or what is life after death. And so you start to explore your own religion, going over every subject, opening books on the table, searching endlessly, and returning to the start, worrying that you might have reasoned incorrectly.

You are afraid that you will be disappointed, but you have confidence, knowing that whatever happens in the end, you will face it with courage. And as the ball of yarn unwinds, faces that act through history appear before you. You join their pieces like a mosaic in your thoughts, trying to figure out why your ancestor did this particular action or some other. You now compose their image, while struggling to know them in your time. It is they who once determined your future with a command before you even existed on Earth.

These are your thoughts as a man. If, however, you are also an architect, when you are tasked with constructing the temple of God, among your many other thoughts you will also have to create with your construction the relationship between God and the faithful.

Holy Sacramental Journey to Greece

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Holy Sacramental Journey to Greece (ed. Esoptron – Athens 2005)

Entering the “METRO” station of Athens from Syntagma Square, in the large atrium of a stairway, on the right hand on the wall, there is a huge stratigraphy of the area. Suddenly then, you begin to realize that going forward to enter the train, you are on the ground of the 7th century B.C. Then, your eyes start to move up, until the stratigraphy brings you to your own time. Thus you understand that there is a thick layer of civilization beneath the streets of Athens, and there are very few cities in this world where people have this luxury.

So you start to think, recreating history…Down here is where Solon the Athenian used to walk, who relieved anyone who was in debt from the Damoclean Sword of slavery with the “Seisactheia”. Slightly above Democritus of Abdera used to walk, who taught the atomic theory, and Zeno of Elea, the teacher of Pericles. But also Protagoras of Abdera, who was condemned by the Athenians for atheism, together with Socrates, Alcibiades, and Plato with his student, Aristotle. A little higher above taught Chrysippus of Cilicia, on the same streets that the cynic Diogenes of Sinope used to walk. Somewhere there Epicurus of Samos could be found, who taught the release from the fear of death through “ataraxia”.

There is a lot to remember while you observe, in the various height of the stratigraphy, pottery of various eras and graves of people, who once existed and lived just like you, but more dynamic. Now they are there, remaining still in the ground, but their spirit roams in the great hall, the shape of which gives the impression of a large box, in which many people race to catch the “metro” train. This “Metro” station is a miniature of Greece, which resembles Pandora’s box, which once opened, releases many good and bad things, in a time sequence of consecutive civilizations, that draw from each other and their logic should be sought. So you exit the “Metro” station looking for the traces of these civilizations in the archaeological sites, each of which is a pebble of a mosaic that you should compose.

So then, you begin to observe that this mosaic is huge. It descends into the chthonic space and ascends to the celestial, and it keeps expanding into the cardinal points. Its composition is a time-consuming process that requires patience, perseverance, method and practice, the experience of an old man and the flexibility of the young, but above all a spherical knowledge and great imagination, in order to get objective results. There will be errors and misfires, but these will start to become limited the less dogmatic you become. It is by this logic that we should enter each archaeological site, trying to comprehend the logic of the Ancients.

Sacred Astronomy

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Sacred Astronomy (ed. Esoptron – Athens 2008)

Every night, the celestial dome dominates over our Earth, and he who possesses it automatically becomes the Master of the Earth. In this book, we will examine how the spread of Hellenism on the geographical space, was the result of the conquest of the Astral dome, a fact which positioned the Greeks in the advantageous position of acquiring a geo-strategical logic.

One can easily perceive, that all of this, has happened over a long period of time and we are nowadays unprepared to understand it’s importance, as the knowledge of the operation of the Celestial dome is a subject bypassed in modern education, and we jump straight into Space, ignoring that our current space successes are still based on the functions of the ancient Celestial dome.
It is a work spanning many centuries, which was carried out by many Greek Astronomers, of which we know only of 188. However, it is possible for us to acquire a completed education, by starting with common logic. During the course of our study, however, we will be proceeding spherically around Knowledge, due to the fact that the World of the Ancients is multidimensional, and each of their conquests was also extended and applied into their social life.

This way we will discover our spiritual proximity to our ancient ancestors, even if we are separated by thousands of years. Even our own worship is the projection of their own decisions, as the ancient world was a world of research on all fields of human activity. If we accept as a fact that the World leader of today is situated in Washington, we will seek for the answers to the questions, who was the previous World leader, where was he, and what was his association to the modern world.

The whole process of research creates complex emotions, as we transition from one historical site to the other and from one dimension to another. And this is because the Celestial dome essentially does not exist; it is a fictional impression of the visual system, which the Ancient ancestor turned into a real and functional one, for future generations.

When, during a starlit night, we find ourselves away from the city lights and turn our gaze to the sky, we will see that it is filled with stars. The spectacle is amazing, however, everyone deals with it in a different manner, depending on the emotion of the moment and his knowledge regarding the Earth. The initiated, when looking at the sum of constellations, he will start to point to Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, Draco, Cepheus, and Cassiopeia, and everyone will listen to him with bewilderment. Because we all know the great movie stars like Greta Garbo, James Dean, Humphrey Bogart, and many others. But who might the stars on the sky be and who placed them there?

Academic Involvement


The books and theories of George Baltoyannis have been embraced by the Università degli Studi dell’Aquila in Italy, where he was invited several times to give lectures to the students.

Theories of the book Sacred Architecture have been integrated into the curriculum of lesson “Elements of Geometry” of the University of Ioannina in Greece.

Publications


Many of his articles have been published in the magazine ek magazine (Ελληνικές Κατασκευές), reddot official media partners.

* Please note that all graphic material presented in the above books and this website is © copyrighted. For more information or for permission requests, please visit our Terms of Use.

What is Mythical Routes

Mythical Routes is an idea, a project started in 2017 by two brothers, an Architect and a Landscape Architect, both passionate Adventure Riders, trying to combine the scientific knowledge they had acquired, with their passion for exploration and the best way to do that, the motorcycle.

Their personal journey through Myths and Time started back in the ’90s while helping their father with his historical research. Using old army maps they were connecting important archeological sites with each other, only to realize that the ideas their father was working on were more than theories. They were becoming scientific facts, just before their own eyes!

Trying to understand the Construction Aliments of Ancient Greek Temples and the Connections that existed between them, we thought that the best way to visit all the important and remote archeological sites was with our adventure motorcycles.

This website is an interactive instrument of knowledge, that will help spread the ideas and facts of Ancient Greek Architecture and modern Hellenic Adventure Lifestyle throughout the international adventure community.


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